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Laser fundamentals

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Laser fundamentals
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ЗаголовокLaser fundamentals
Тип публикацииУчебное пособие
Год публикации1996
АвторыSilfvast, W. T.
Язык публикацииАнглийский
Полный текст

Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition Acknowledgments
1 INTRODUCTION
OVERVIEW
Introduction
Definition of the Laser
Simplicity of a Laser
Unique Properties of a Laser
The Laser Spectrum and Wavelengths
A Brief History of the Laser
Overview of the Book

2 WAVE NATURE OF LIGHT - THE INTERACTION OF LIGHT WITH MATERIALS
OVERVIEW
2.1 Maxwell's Equations
2.2 Maxwell's Wave Equations
Maxwell's Wave Equations for a Vacuum
Solution of the General Wave Equation - Equivalence of Light and
Electromagnetic Radiation Wave Velocity - Phase and Group Velocities Generalized Solution of the Wave Equation Transverse Electromagnetic Waves and Polarized Light Flow of Electromagnetic Energy Radiation from a Point Source (Electric Dipole Radiation)
2.3 Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation (Light) with Matter Speed of Light in a Medium
Maxwell's Equations in a Medium
Application of Maxwell's Equations to Dielectric Materials -
Laser Gain Media
Complex Index of Refraction - Optical Constants Absorption and Dispersion
Estimating Particle Densities of Materials for Use in the
Dispersion Equations
2.4 Coherence
Temporal Coherence Spatial Coherence
REFERENCES PROBLEMS
3 PARTICLE NATURE OF LIGHT - DISCRETE ENERGY LEVELS
OVERVIEW
3.1 Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
Historical Development of the Concept of Discrete Energy Levels
Energy Levels of the Hydrogen Atom
Frequency and Wavelength of Emission Lines
lonization Energies and Energy Levels of Ions
Photons
3.2 Quantum Theory of Atomic Energy Levels Wave Nature of Particles
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
Wave Theory
Wave Functions
Quantum States
The Schrodinger Wave Equation
Energy and Wave Function for the Ground State of the
Hydrogen Atom Excited States of Hydrogen Allowed Quantum Numbers for Hydrogen Atom Wave Functions
3.3 Angular Momentum of Atoms Orbital Angular Momentum Spin Angular Momentum
Total Angular Momentum
3.4 Energy Levels Associated with One-Electron Atoms Fine Structure of Spectral Lines
Pauli Exclusion Principle
3.5 Periodic Table of the Elements
Quantum Conditions Associated with Multiple Electrons Attached
to Nuclei Shorthand Notation for Electronic Configurations of Atoms Having
More Than One Electron
3.6 Energy Levels of Multi-Electron Atoms Energy-Level Designation for Multi-Electron States Russell-Saunders or LS Coupling - Notation for Energy Levels Energy Levels Associated with Two Electrons in Unfilled Shells Rules for Obtaining S, L, and / for LS Coupling Degeneracy and Statistical Weights
7-7 Coupling Isoelectronic Scaling

REFERENCES PROBLEMS
4 RADIATIVE TRANSITIONS AND EMISSION LINEWIDTH
OVERVIEW
4.1 Decay of Excited States
Radiative Decay of Excited States of Isolated Atoms -
Spontaneous Emission Spontaneous Emission Decay Rate - Radiative Transition
Probability Lifetime of a Radiating Electron - The Electron as a Classical
Radiating Harmonic Oscillator Nonradiative Decay of the Excited States - Collisional Decay
4.2 Emission Broadening and Linewidth Due to Radiative Decay Classical Emission Linewidth of a Radiating Electron
Natural Emission Linewidth as Deduced by Quantum Mechanics (Minimum Linewidth)
4.3 Additional Emission-Broadening Processes Broadening Due to Nonradiative (Collisional) Decay Broadening Due to Dephasing Collisions Amorphous Crystal Broadening
Doppler Broadening in Gases
Voigt Lineshape Profile
Broadening in Gases Due to Isotope Shifts
Comparison of Various Types of Emission Broadening
4.4 Quantum Mechanical Description of Radiating Atoms Electric Dipole Radiation
Electric Dipole Matrix Element
Electric Dipole Transition Probability
Oscillator Strength
Selection Rules for Electric Dipole Transitions Involving Atoms
with a Single Electron in an Unfilled Subshell Selection Rules for Radiative Transitions Involving Atoms with
More Than One Electron in an Unfilled Subshell Parity Selection Rule Inefficient Radiative Transitions - Electric Quadrupole and Other
Higher-Order Transitions
REFERENCES PROBLEMS
5 ENERGY LEVELS AND RADIATIVE PROPERTIES OF MOLECULES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLIDS
OVERVIEW
5.1 Molecular Energy Levels and Spectra
Energy Levels of Molecules Classification of Simple Molecules Rotational Energy Levels of Linear Molecules Rotational Energy Levels of Symmetric-Top Molecules Selection Rules for Rotational Transitions

Vibrational Energy Levels
Selection Rule for Vibrational Transitions
Rotational-Vibrational Transitions
Probabilities of Rotational and Vibrational Transitions
Electronic Energy Levels of Molecules
Electronic Transitions and Associated Selection Rules of
Molecules
Emission Linewidth of Molecular Transitions The Franck-Condon Principle Excimer Energy Levels
5.2 Liquid Energy Levels and Their Radiation Properties Structure of Dye Molecules
Energy Levels of Dye Molecules Excitation and Emission of Dye Molecules Detrimental Triplet States of Dye Molecules
5.3 Energy Levels in Solids - Dielectric Laser Materials Host Materials
Laser Species - Dopant Ions Narrow-Linewidth Laser Materials Broadband Tunable Laser Materials Broadening Mechanism for Solid-State Lasers
5.4 Energy Levels in Solids - Semiconductor Laser Materials Energy Bands in Crystalline Solids
Energy Levels in Periodic Structures
Energy Levels of Conductors, Insulators, and Semiconductors
Excitation and Decay of Excited Energy Levels - Recombination
Radiation
Direct and Indirect Bandgap Semiconductors Electron Distribution Function and Density of States in
Semiconductors
Intrinsic Semiconductor Materials Extrinsic Semiconductor Materials - Doping p-n Junctions - Recombination Radiation Due to Electrical
Excitation
Heterojunction Semiconductor Materials Quantum Wells Variation of Bandgap Energy and Radiation Wavelength with
Alloy Composition Recombination Radiation Transition Probability and Linewidth
REFERENCES PROBLEMS
6 RADIATION AND THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM - ABSORPTION AND STIMULATED EMISSION
OVERVIEW
6.1 Equilibrium
Thermal Equilibrium
Thermal Equilibrium via Conduction and Convection
Thermal Equilibrium via Radiation

6.2 Radiating Bodies
Stefan-Boltzmann Law Wien's Law Irradiance and Radiance
6.3 Cavity Radiation
Counting the Number of Cavity Modes
Rayleigh-Jeans Formula
Planck's Law for Cavity Radiation
Relationship between Cavity Radiation and Blackbody
Radiation Wavelength Dependence of Blackbody Emission
6.4 Absorption and Stimulated Emission The Principle of Detailed Balance Absorption and Stimulated Emission Coefficients
REFERENCES PROBLEMS
7 CONDITIONS FOR PRODUCING A LASER - POPULATION INVERSIONS, GAIN, AND GAIN SATURATION
OVERVIEW
7.1 Absorption and Gain
Absorption and Gain on a Homogeneously Broadened Radiative
Transition (Lorentzian Frequency Distribution) Gain Coefficient and Stimulated Emission Cross Section for
Homogeneous Broadening Absorption and Gain on an Inhomogeneously Broadened Radiative
Transition (Doppler Broadening with a Gaussian Distribution) Gain Coefficient and Stimulated Emission Cross Section for
Doppler Broadening
Statistical Weights and the Gain Equation Relationship of Gain Coefficient and Stimulated Emission
Cross Section to Absorption Coefficient and Absorption
Cross Section
7.2 Population Inversion (Necessary Condition for a Laser)
7.3 Saturation Intensity (Sufficient Condition for a Laser)
7.4 Development and Growth of a Laser Beam Growth of Beam for a Gain Medium with Homogeneous
Broadening
Shape or Geometry of Amplifying Medium Growth of Beam for Doppler Broadening
7.5 Exponential Growth Factor (Gain)
7.6 Threshold Requirements for a Laser Laser with No Mirrors
Laser with One Mirror Laser with Two Mirrors
REFERENCES PROBLEMS

8 LASER OSCILLATION ABOVE THRESHOLD
OVERVIEW
8.1 Laser Gain Saturation
Rate Equations of the Laser Levels That Include Stimulated
Emission Population Densities of Upper and Lower Laser Levels with
Beam Present
Small-Signal Gain Coefficient Saturation of the Laser Gain above Threshold
8.2 Laser Beam Growth beyond the Saturation Intensity Change from Exponential Growth to Linear Growth Steady-State Laser Intensity
8.3 Optimization of Laser Output Power Optimum Output Mirror Transmission Optimum Laser Output Intensity Estimating Optimum Laser Output Power
8.4 Energy Exchange between Upper Laser Level Population and Laser Photons
Decay Time of a Laser Beam within an Optical Cavity Basic Laser Cavity Rate Equations Steady-State Solutions below Laser Threshold Steady-State Operation above Laser Threshold
8.5 Laser Output Fluctuations Laser Spiking
Relaxation Oscillations
8.6 Laser Amplifiers Basic Amplifier Uses
Propagation of a High-Power, Short-Duration Optical Pulse through
an Amplifier
Saturation Energy Fluence Amplifying Long Laser Pulses Amplifying Short Laser Pulses Comparison of Efficient Laser Amplifiers Based upon Fundamental
Saturation Limits Mirror Array and Resonator (Regenerative) Amplifiers
REFERENCES PROBLEMS
9 REQUIREMENTS FOR OBTAINING POPULATION INVERSIONS
OVERVIEW
9.1 Inversions and Two-Level Systems
9.2 Relative Decay Rates - Radiative versus Collisional
9.3 Steady-State Inversions in Three- and Four-Level Systems
Three-Level Laser with the Intermediate Level as the Upper Laser
Level
Three-Level Laser with the Upper Laser Level as the Highest Level Four-Level Laser
9.4 Transient Population Inversions

9.5 Processes That Inhibit or Destroy Inversions
Radiation Trapping in Atoms and Ions
Electron Collisional Thermalization of the Laser Levels in Atoms
and Ions Comparison of Radiation Trapping and Electron Collisional Mixing
in a Gas Laser Absorption within the Gain Medium
REFERENCES PROBLEMS
10 LASER PUMPING REQUIREMENTS AND TECHNIQUES
OVERVIEW
10.1 Excitation or Pumping Threshold Requirements
10.2 Pumping Pathways
Excitation by Direct Pumping
Excitation by Indirect Pumping (Pump and Transfer)
Specific Pump-and-Transfer Processes
10.3 Specific Excitation Parameters Associated with Optical Pumping
Pumping Geometries Pumping Requirements A Simplified Optical Pumping Approximation Transverse Pumping End Pumping
Diode Pumping of Solid-State Lasers
Characterization of a Laser Gain Medium with Optical Pumping (Slope Efficiency)
10.4 Specific Excitation Parameters Associated with Particle Pumping
Electron Collisional Pumping
Heavy Particle Pumping
A More Accurate Description of Electron Excitation Rate to a
Specific Energy Level in a Gas Discharge Electrical Pumping of Semiconductors
REFERENCES PROBLEMS
11 LASER CAVITY MODES
OVERVIEW
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Longitudinal Laser Cavity Modes
Fabry-Perot Resonator Fabry-Perot Cavity Modes Longitudinal Laser Cavity Modes Longitudinal Mode Number Requirements for the Development of Longitudinal Laser Modes

11.3 Transverse Laser Cavity Modes
Fresnel-Kirchhoff Diffraction Integral Formula
Development of Transverse Modes in a Cavity with Plane-Parallel
Mirrors
Transverse Modes Using Curved Mirrors Transverse Mode Spatial Distributions Transverse Mode Frequencies Gaussian-Shaped Transverse Modes within and beyond the
Laser Cavity
11.4 Properties of Laser Modes Mode Characteristics
Effect of Modes on the Gain Medium Profile
REFERENCES PROBLEMS
12 STABLE LASER RESONATORS AND GAUSSIAN BEAMS
OVERVIEW
12.1 Stable Curved Mirror Cavities
Curved Mirror Cavities ABCD Matrices Cavity Stability Criteria
12.2 Properties of Gaussian Beams Propagation of a Gaussian Beam
Gaussian Beam Properties of Two-Mirror Laser Cavities Properties of Specific Two-Mirror Laser Cavities Mode Volume of a Hermite-Gaussian Mode
12.3 Properties of Real Laser Beams
12.4 Propagation of Gaussian Beams Using ABCD Matrices -Complex Beam Parameter
Complex Beam Parameter Applied to a Two-Mirror Laser Cavity
REFERENCES PROBLEMS
13 SPECIAL LASER CAVITIES AND CAVITY EFFECTS
OVERVIEW
13.1 Unstable Resonators
13.2 ?>-Switching
General Description
Theory
Methods of Producing (g-Switching within a Laser Cavity
13.3 Gain-Switching
13.4 Mode-Locking General Description Theory
Techniques for Producing Mode-Locking
13.5 Pulse Shortening Techniques Self-Phase Modulation
Pulse Shortening or Lengthening Using Group Velocity Dispersion Pulse Compression (Shortening) with Gratings or Prisms Ultrashort-Pulse Laser and Amplifer System

13.6 Ring Lasers
Monolithic Unidirectional Single-Mode Nd:YAG Ring Laser Two-Mirror Ring Laser
13.7 Complex Beam Parameter Analysis Applied to Multi-Mirror Laser Cavities
Three-Mirror Ring Laser Cavity Three- or Four-Mirror Focused Cavity
13.8 Cavities for Producing Spectral Narrowing of Laser Output
Cavity with Additional Fabry-Perot Etalon for Narrow-Frequency
Selection Tunable Cavity
Broadband Tunable cw Ring Lasers Tunable Cavity for Ultranarrow-Frequency Output Distributed Feedback (DFB) Lasers Distributed Bragg Reflection Lasers
13.9 Laser Cavities Requiring Small-Diameter Gain Regions -Astigmatically Compensated Cavities
13.10 Waveguide Cavities for Gas Lasers
REFERENCES PROBLEMS
14 LASER SYSTEMS INVOLVING LOW-DENSITY GAIN MEDIA
OVERVIEW
14.1 Atomic Gas Lasers
Introduction Helium-Neon Laser
General Description Laser Structure Excitation Mechanism Applications Argon Ion Laser General Description Laser Structure Excitation Mechanism Krypton Ion Laser Applications
Helium-Cadmium Laser General Description Laser Structure Excitation Mechanism Applications Copper Vapor Laser General Description Laser Structure Excitation Mechanism Applications

14.2 Molecular Gas Lasers
Introduction
Carbon Dioxide Laser
General Description
Laser Structure
Excitation Mechanism
Applications
Excimer Lasers
General Description
Laser Structure
Excitation Mechanism
Applications
Nitrogen Laser
General Description
Laser Structure and Excitation Mechanism
Applications
Far-Infrared Gas Lasers
General Description
Laser Structure
Excitation Mechanism
Applications
Chemical Lasers
General Description
Laser Structure
Excitation Mechanism
Applications
14.3 X-Ray Plasma Lasers Introduction
Pumping Energy Requirements Excitation Mechanism Optical Cavities X-Ray Laser Transitions Applications
14.4 Free-Electron Lasers Introduction
Laser Structure Applications
REFERENCES
15 LASER SYSTEMS INVOLVING HIGH-DENSITY GAIN MEDIA
OVERVIEW
15.1 Organic Dye Lasers
Introduction Laser Structure Excitation Mechanism Applications
15.2 Solid-State Lasers Introduction

Ruby Laser
General Description
Laser Structure
Excitation Mechanism
Applications
Neodymium YAG and Glass Lasers
General Description
Laser Structure
Excitation Mechanism
Applications
NeodymiumrYLF Lasers
General Description
Laser Structure
Excitation Mechanism
Applications
NeodymiumrYttrium Vanadate (Nd:YVO4> Lasers
General Description
Laser Structure
Excitation Mechanism
Applications
Ytterbium:YAG Lasers
General Description
Laser Structure
Excitation Mechanism
Applications
Alexandrite Laser
General Description
Laser Structure
Excitation Mechanism
Applications
Titanium Sapphire Laser
General Description
Laser Structure
Excitation Mechanism
Applications
Chromium LiSAF and LiCAF Lasers
General Description
Laser Structure
Excitation Mechanism
Applications
Fiber Lasers
General Description
Laser Structure
Excitation Mechanism
Applications
Color Center Lasers
General Description
Laser Structure

Excitation Mechanism Applications 15.3 Semiconductor Diode Lasers
Introduction
Four Basic Types of Laser Materials
Laser Structure
Frequency Control of Laser Output
Quantum Cascade Lasers
p-Doped Germanium Lasers
Excitation Mechanism
Applications
REFERENCES
I
16 FREQUENCY MULTIPLICATION OF LASERS AND OTHER NONLINEAR OPTICAL EFFECTS
OVERVIEW
16.1 Wave Propagation in an Anisotropic Crystal
16.2 Polarization Response of Materials to Light
16.3 Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Processes
Second Harmonic Generation
Sum and Difference Frequency Generation
Optical Parametric Oscillation
16.4 Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Processes Third Harmonic Generation Intensity-Dependent Refractive Index - Self-Focusing
16.5 Nonlinear Optical Materials
16.6 Phase Matching Description of Phase Matching Achieving Phase Matching Types of Phase Matching
16.7 Saturable Absorption
16.8 Two-Photon Absorption
16.9 Stimulated Raman Scattering
16.10 Harmonic Generation in Gases
REFERENCES
Appendix Index

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